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Blood & Lymph - A free thinking by logical reasoning

Is Arterial Blood Toxic? 

Blood

The modern science requires thorough revision in order to create credibility and confidence. Of late there is a trend around the world, especially among the youngsters, not to seek admission in basic sciences. Several reasons may be there. As a consequence at undergraduate level or graduate levels lesser number of students gets enrolled year after year. Several scientists have expressed their opinions on the issue inviting the youngsters to take up courses leading to basic sciences. Here is yet another angle to solve the problem.

#Dr. P. K. Bhat have focused the issue academically as an introspection why there is such apathy? An analytical case study is illustrative. This should permit rectification of any errors and an opportunity to change the same for future action. It is hoped that such case studies in every field of science should yield excellent dividends. The rectification of concepts and methodology should be taken up by the elder scientists of today so that the youngsters get encouragement and proper guidance. Academically the world is flat. Every one has his or her duties and responsibilities besides rights. It is possible that some drastic changes are inevitable but there should be understanding on this issue and full collaboration from all directions.

In a dynamic nature every ingredient is part of the whole. No fragmentation is possible. Precisely this is what the modern science has done all through. Take for example the blood in an organism. Blood is a special tissue system in human body. Several metabolic functions are attributed to the blood. #Blood analysis is one of the key tests to understand the health conditions of an individual. Blood banks collect blood from “donors” and give it in transfusion to other patients. #Intravenous injections are commonly used as an easy way of administering pharmaceutical drugs to patients around the world. Specialization courses are conducted at post graduate or even post doctoral levels of research on several aspects of blood or aspects related to the same. Specialized journals are kept for the publication of these research articles. All this happens because it is assumed that the blood is a vital liquid tissue in the human body. It is also assumed that the blood carries nourishment from intestines to the tissues. It is further supposed that respiration is possible only through the blood. Based on such assumptions other conclusions are derived. In order to suit such speculations other hypotheses are drawn up. To justify these actions several scientific publications have appeared in professional journals for circulation among the experts around the world. This process has not permitted a serious introspection into the entire matter so that academic justice is possible, at least for those who want to rectify the errors. 

Based on structural and functional complexities blood vessels are identified as #arteries and #veins. Arteries are #blood #vessels which carry blood from the heart away to the tissues whereas veins return the blood towards the heart. The blood receives nutrients from the intestines and the skin. Lungs permit the gaseous exchange. The blood maintains the body temperature. And many more aspects are scientifically known. There are four types of #blood #groups: A, B, AB and O. Other factors are added when ever required such as #Rhesus or #Diego factors.

Considering the basic facts several draw backs become evident. All that has been said about blood requires a thought provoking discussion.

The kidneys receive #arterial blood and urine gets separated from the same. Urine is a #toxic waste which includes #creatinin, #urea, #minerals, #vitamin residues, #drugs, #steroids or other similar products. #Urine test has served as an indicator of drug abuse among sportsman. Some times sugar is also excreted. All toxic wastes thrown out at kidneys were separated from the arterial blood and the venous blood coming out of the kidneys is devoid of these toxins. Some times the cells of the mucous membrane get “infected” causing fever or that is observed in association. Whether the fever is the cause of the infection or the infection is the cause of the fever is not clear. Many a times both these conditions are easily referred to as “#virosis” by the experts to say the least.

Kidney stones of different kinds and sizes develop in response to food and living habits. Normally an adult human being produces about 1.5 liters of urine in 24 hours. The quantity and quality of urine may indicate the body conditions. Certain substances may damage the kidney tissues beyond repair. Toxic wastes may have not reached the kidneys at all. There may be structural or functional alterations kidneys or elsewhere in the body.

When the urine elimination is qualitatively and quantitatively deficient #haemo-dialysis is done with the help of specialized instruments to receive the patient’s blood, filters the identifiable toxins and replaces the volume of liquid required in the body. On convenient occasions kidney transplant may be surgically performed but care must be taken to administer sufficient quantity of anti tissue rejection substances. This medicine should be consumed for the rest of the life of the patient. This indicates that even though the blood group tallied one individual #rejects #tissue from other organism. On the basis of #immunology each individual is unique and does not accept foreign tissues of any kind. 

Here the point is that all the toxic wastes were in the #arterial blood. The #venous blood is devoid of such toxins. The metabolic wastes reach the heart through the #vena cava which in turn receives the same from the #lymphatic ocean.

#Salivary glands, #gastric glands, #liver, #pancreas, #intestinal glands discharge their secretions through specific #ducts and therefore, are also known as #exocrine glands. The #pancreas also serves as endocrine gland since it produces #insulin. In general the exocrine glands are associated with the #alimentary canal and secrete #digestive juices. All these secretions are in reality #metabolic #wastes separated from the arterial blood. An excellent example to explain this idea is the case of the #liver and the #bile.

The largest exocrine gland in the human body is the liver that produces the bile. The #hepatic cells maintain excellent regeneration capacity. It is interesting to note that the hepatic cells exhibit triploid or #polyploidy nuclei. The way such nuclei are produced from the #diploid #zygotic nuclei is still a mystery from a genetic point of view. That itself is yet another issue requiring more studies for satisfactory explanation.

The arterial blood enters the liver through #hepatic artery. #Cholesterol, #triglycerides, #bile #salts, #bile #pigments and even #ammonia are secreted. These secretions get accumulated in the #vesicle and periodically released to the #duodenum through the bile duct under normal circumstances. The bile duct and the pancreatic duct reach duodenum almost at the same point. Much information is available on the nature and function of the liver and the bile. It is yet another example of the efficiency of the human body and its capacity to co-ordinate different metabolic functions. Bile is secreted by the hepatic cells. The toxic wastes contained in the #arterial #blood are separated by the #liver. The #bad #lipid in the form of #cholesterol and #triglycerides is a metabolic waste product. Bile salts and bile pigments are also found. The bile accumulated in the vesicle gets released occasionally to be drained into the #duodenum to mix up with the partially digested food moving out of the stomach. The highly acidic #gastric #juices mixed with the food render the same acidic in reaction. As such this may damage the rest of the system. Timely incorporation of this #alkaline bile with the partially digested food serves to #neutralize its #acidity and hence reduce damages. The fiber content of the food gets saturated with these toxic fatty acids to become a suitable substrate for the #intestinal #flora at the #ascending #colon. These two functions, namely the neutralization of acidic medium and the elimination of #lipids by the dietary fiber are important for the organism. This type of usage of metabolic waste is a good example of recycling the garbage.

When the bile is not released from the liver the hepatic cells become stagnated or if it is not released from the vesicle duodenum does not get the bile. In the first case the toxic wastes are retained in the blood or when the accumulation is in the vesicle #vesicular stones may be formed.

The stomach may become bag-like and sagging when there is no flexibility. This way the #pyloric end of the stomach pulls down the duodenum so that the bile instead of flowing into the duodenum returns to the stomach technically known as a “#reflux”. This process mixes gastric juices with the bile and the resulting mixture gets accumulated in the stomach. As a result the #mucous membrane at the #pyloric end close to the #orifice gets degenerated exhibiting #Helicobacter pylori. The situation may lead to other pathological conditions beyond consideration at this moment. 

The gall stones grow by #apposition and grow to attain significant size and shape. Then surgical removal of the stone or even the entire vesicle is the only solution. In this case the bile flows continuously into the #duodenum. If there is any functional obstruction the bile gets refluxed into the blood stream or the body fluid. As a consequence the hepatic cells get degenerated permitting the expression of #hepatitis A, B or C. In extreme cases #jaundice or severe #allergic #intoxication is observed. Classical “#idiopathic” diseases or symptoms of allergy are common complaints. On testing residual toxin is detected in the venous blood.

Similar situations may be explained with reference to other exocrine glands and their function. In every case the arterial blood carries the toxic metabolic wastes and relatively less toxic blood is found in the veins.

Human skin receives plenty of arterial blood through peripheral blood vessels. Toxic substances are separated from the arterial blood to be released through the skin. #Sweat and #waxy secretions with minerals are common substances in this case. This is claimed to maintain the body temperature by #thermoregulation by burning the toxic wastes. Additional fat gets accumulated at #hypodermal layers at strategic localities in the body. Skin care to maintain the surface clean is an important health feature. #Cosmetic industry thrives on this factor. Millions of pores adorning the skin maintain direct contact with the atmosphere. This reflects the dual role of the skin as an additional kidney and an extended lung.

Local itching may extend all over the body when other ways of toxic elimination fail. As a result dandruff, boils, hair fall, pigmentation or other #chronic #dermatological #diseases appear one after the other or all at a time. The health of the skin is as if a mirror to the conditions within the body. When all other elimination methods fail, the #skin #eruptions become extensive with foul smell associated with decaying dead cells.

Again the point is that the arterial blood carries all the metabolic wastes whereas the veins return the recyclable less toxic blood. The vitamin D produced in the skin exposed to the sunlight enriches the venous blood.

In the case of lungs some warm gases combined with water vapor come out of the #nostrils. Additional discussion is required here to further clarify some more points.

It is assumed that the #Oxygen intake occurs through the lungs. In specialized literature no mechanism is described by which the Oxygen gets separated from the #atmospheric air. The suspended soil particles, #pollen, #spores and bits of #fungal #mycelia get filtered while the air passes through the nostrils. Discounting the #humidity, out of the remaining air about 21 % is supposed to be Oxygen. The Oxygen is said to be #ionized to enter into the blood stream by #osmosis and by binding with the #haemoglobin goes to the tissues. Within the cells the #mitochondria is the location of incorporation of oxygen with the nutrients to liberate #ATP in the #citric acid cycle to release #carbon #dioxide. In turn, the released carbon dioxide in ionized form incorporates into the #haemoglobin to come out of the tissues and again reaches the lungs for its elimination through the nostrils. This process is also known as #Kreb’s cycle.

Some of the questions at this occasion are:
  1. What is the mechanism by which the oxygen gets separated from the air?
  2. What happens to the electron released while ionizing takes place?
  3. How does it take place?
  4. An atom should be stable indivisible smallest particle and in that case oxygen as an element should function as a unit without modification of any kind.
  5. What is the nature of ionized oxygen? Whether it remains gaseous or changes?
  6. What is the mechanism of absorption of this gas into the mucous membrane of the lungs?
  7. How does it flow through the lymphatic vessel subjacent to the mucous membrane?
  8. How does the ionized oxygen pass across several layers of cells until it reaches the capillary wall?
  9. How does it penetrate the capillary wall without damaging the same?
  10. What happens to the ionized oxygen when it gets into the blood stream which is flowing at a specific speed?
  11. How does it locate the #erythrocytes in the blood stream?
  12. How does it penetrate the membrane of the erythrocyte, its #endoplasmic #reticulum and other intracellular material?
  13. How does it get in contact with the #haemoglobin which is already loaded with #ionized Carbon Dioxide?
  14. What is the fate of the #Carbon Dioxide set free?

The whole process should be reversed once the blood reaches the tissues. The ionized oxygen has to get liberated from the #oxy haemoglobin. Then it has to pass through the #endoplasmic reticulum and a number of #organelles. After coming out of the #erythrocyte it has to swim in the #plasma which is already flowing. Then it has to come out of the capillary wall layers. Then the specific cell has to be located in order to enter the membrane. It has to pass through the endoplsmic reticulum to locate the mitochondria. Again it has to come in contact with the #grana in order to combine with the nutrients (How do they reach that place? In what form or units? ). The ionized Carbon Dioxide produced after liberating ATP has to retrace the entire way back into the lungs. To be fair enough their proportion should be comparable. The entire process needs an exhaustive explanation in clear terms with no ambiguities.

One more problem comes to light in recent advances in Physical Sciences. This problem is of utmost importance on conceptual aspect. The #Quantum Physics has identified #electrons #protons and #neutrons as #subatomic #particles. Both protons and neutrons are known to have #quarks as smaller components. #Strings constitute still smaller units of quarks. #M-theory claims still smaller particles in single dimension but vibrating. This being the case the concept of atom becomes obsolete and baseless. (Democrit a Greek of V centuries B.C. has defined the smallest indivisible particle of matter as an ATOM)

The #Periodic Table is developed based on atomic theory of matter. When there are subatomic particles described and demonstrated with explosives destroying populations at several places around the planet, holding on to the atomic theory and Periodic Tables becomes incoherent. Any subject or science based on these incoherent concepts lost its charm long back.

Lavoisier (1774) working on gases identified one fraction of atmospheric air as “#Oxygen” and the rest of it as “#azoe”. Priestly denied the same at once but was not taken seriously by the scientific community. Thus the inventor of the word Oxygen remained the “father of Chemistry”. The #bell jar experiment with a burning candle has remained a standard proof for the presence of oxygen in the air.
When a candle burns in a closed glass jar the air within gets heated up. As a result it expands. The glass jar is strong enough to maintain the volume. Some air may get dissolved in the water in the jar. Part of the burnt wax or wicks may remain in the jar or get mixed up with the water. Slowly the pressure is bound to increase within. The pressure increase reaches a point when the flame is put off. (It is assumed that the candle is put off because of the non availability of oxygen) Once again when the chamber cools down and the air within returns to its original volume, the pressure with in decreases and the water rushes into the jar. The observed phenomenon has another interpretation than the prevailing one. Such experiments contribute to prove the human errors in interpreting the observed facts. Obviously the conclusions based on such premises become incorrect.

The electrolysis of water to demonstrate the chemical composition of water as H-O-H has certain draw backs. Under normal conditions two gases should combine in an inseparable manner to constitute a stable liquid, the water. Water is a non conductor of electricity. To make it a good conductor of electricity, a dilute acid is added to the water prior to electrolysis. The resulting liquid is no more water but a dilute acid. Even if gases are collected at two terminals the source of the same need not be water. Spring water under natural conditions contains many salts in minute quantities and that gives the typical taste for that water. Such experimental proof only demonstrates the imperfection of the paradigm.

Naturally occurring sea water that represents about 97.2% of the total #hydrosphere contains all the known “#elements” contained in the Periodic Tables and perhaps some more. This being the case, sea salt obtained by evaporation of sea water should contain all the salts and minerals in a specific proportion. In practice the sea salt is referred to as #Sodium Chloride. It may be true that the major portion of the salt is Sodium Chloride.

About 2.5% of water content of the #hydrosphere gets transformed into ice bergs or #glaciers occupying the mountain tops or the Polar Regions with low temperature.

Perhaps the Periodic Table as a whole plus some unknown elements should represent a chemical formula for water. Such a complex material containing liquid, solids and gaseous components should be interpreted in a better way.

Viewed from such a critical review the role of Oxygen or that of Carbon Dioxide becomes meaningless. Consequences of such considerations may be discussed elsewhere. 

#Lavoisier wanted to demonstrate experimentally to his friends that even after chopping off his head his eyelids could wink several times and communicate with others. The Science promoted and predominated by the European conquerors around the world carried their concepts and methodology and ruthlessly imposed on others wherever possible. All other forms of knowledge, however substantiated became “#empirical” and were considered to be unscientific or even outright superstitious.

#Kreb and #Lipman (1953) won the Nobel Prize by describing the #respiration at two levels. They presented the ten organic acids involved in the process as #Citric Acid cycle.

Immediately this became the official scientific explanation of #external #respiration and the #intracellular #energy release in the form of #ATP as the #internal #respiration. The same scientific models entered the classrooms in schools and colleges around the world with extensive charts and molecular displays of chemical bonds. 

Any student or even a professional scientist becomes sick when such incoherence gets into mainstream science. This may be the main reason why the basic sciences have lost their charm. Of course the more lucrative and easier computer world has invaded all walks of life and one can become a mental slave to the machine with least creative intelligence. The information technology has grown out of bounds demanding all the available hands for its growth and steady expansion.

The fresh air gets in contact with the millions of pores in the human skin and can easily come into the body fluid with least difficulty. Even at the lungs there is #lymphatic #vessel subjacent to the #alveolar #mucous #membrane that can easily be reached by the air.

All that can be said here is that the blood returning from the lungs to the heart is devoid of heat probably due to the toxic waste burning. When such waste disposal is obstructed for example, among the #smokers with a dark coating on the #alveolar surface, #pathological conditions are bound to appear. Partial understanding becomes incomplete. Assumptions and speculations lead to erroneous conclusions.

The successful union of gametes results in a #zygote. Successive division of the zygote and differentiation of organs and tissues results in an #embryo sac with #amniotic fluid and a normal human embryo with its own organization. The #placenta serves to carry the embryo to a free suspended position within the #amniotic fluid and also to secrete hormones. Out of the two arteries within one gets obliterated in due course owing to the accumulation of toxic wastes. The metabolic waste material from the developing embryo gets deposited in the #umbilical chord to such an extant that the same becomes stiff at the time of child birth. While the fetus remains within the womb the #erythrocytes and the #platelets are produced by the #spleen besides the #lymph, #lymphocytes and #leucocytes. But once the baby is born the spleen serves as a site for disposal of worn out #erythrocytes and #platelets. Their production is from the #bone #marrow. The recovered pigments get recycled through proper channels. Even at the embryonic state the waste disposal system is well developed and the artery getting blocked up by the process is significant.

Other foci for toxic waste disposal in the body may be identified. The lachrymal gland secretions, waxy secretions in the ears and the secretions in other mucus membranes like genitals are significant. Wrinkles and folds anywhere on the skin or hypodermal fat deposition are also examples of metabolic waste retention in the body. Acidification of the affected area leading to degeneration of the cells and tissues is a common feature. The dead tissue is an ideal substrate for fungal growth identified as mycosis or candidiasis in many cases. Even finger nails and hair roots receive arterial blood and the chitin gets deposited resulting in the growth of finger nail or hair as the case may be.

Curiously enough information is available on the pathogenesis and itiology of atheroma formation in the arterial capillaries either those of the coronary arteries or the cerebral arteries. On extreme cases deep vein thrombosis also may occur. The toxic metabolic wastes present in the arterial blood get deposited along the inner walls of the blood vessels as apposition and are called atheroma. The lumen gets reduced due to obstruction and the toxic waste removal gets reduced. As a consequence the arterial blood pressure increases. Levels of lipoproteins present in the blood show higher values. The modern life style and food habits are widely known cases of such conditions in this modern industrial society. This is one of the major causes of death in the industrialized world.

When such blockings occur in the coronary arteries, open heart surgery or by pass operations are more common ways of treatment. This is time consuming and of high risk cases. Post operation treatment and life styles are sufficiently complicated either due to excessive medication or other associated problems. When a cerebral artery gets blocked or even when a capillary bursts open on the skull forming a blood clot in the brain may lead to paralysis.

Curiously enough the human brain has remained a mystery. It is said to consume about 20% of the energy requirement of the body. Not a single drop of blood enters the brain tissue. There seems to be least mention about this incoherence in the information. Brain tissue is held in a sheathing fluid, like any other delicate organs of the body. Blood supply does not reach these sensitive organs.

The pharmaceutical industries have utilized the human placenta to extract some precious hormones in recent years. It is not yet clear the role played by these hormones in the differentiation of tissues and organs in the fetus.

The endocrine glands play significant role in the human body. The speedy nature of hormone release by these glands and their spread all over the body in a fragment of time are matters of concern even for the scientific world. The unused hormone residue is removed from the body through the arterial blood. The absence of any duct for release of hormones from these glands makes all the difference. Hormonal distribution all over the body without ducts is one question. Unused hormone incorporation into the blood stream remains to be explained.

Any structural or functional alteration of these endocrine glands can cause severe health problems. The role of pancreas in the production of insulin and management of glucose content of the blood is a major issue. Millions of people, rich or poor, young and old around the world suffer from diabetes considered to be a degenerative disease with no known remedies so far. It is possible that the pancreas does not produce the hormone in sufficient quantity or quality. Also it is possible that the product is not released on time. There is another possibility that the hormone gets neutralized in the body or blocked some how some where. The toxic waste disposal system failure may be yet another cause. Some more unknown reasons may still be there for the disease, the diabetes.

Thyroid gland may cause health problems due to structural of functional alterations. 

Other endocrine glands like pituitary or thymus or ovaries may exhibit structural or functional alterations with proportionate symptoms. It is known that these endocrine glands work as a whole in mutual co-ordination. The point here is that the residual hormone reaches the blood stream just prior to its elimination from the body.

Soon after child birth several functional changes occur in the metabolism. The digestive system becomes functional and so is the respiratory system. Bone marrow starts producing the erythrocytes and the platelets. Their incorporation into the blood stream occurs through the vena cava.

In the case of heart patients in any emergency some pill is placed below the tongue and significantly less than that may be taken for the digestion of the pill and then absorption of the digested medicine into the blood stream prior to its conduction to the brain and other parts of the body to arrange the response of the cardiac muscles.

In the case of prisoners executed with lethal injections the hypodermic syringes just penetrate the skin to release the required quantity of poison into the subcutaneous layers and the death overcomes in less than ten seconds. The blood stream does not intervene in the distribution of the injected poison.

In the case of intramuscular injections of vitamins and other medicines these ingredients may reach the blood stream much later through the vena cava since there is no possibility of entry directly into the blood stream.

In all these cases it has to be stressed that the blood stream has not served to transport nutrients or medicines around the organs and tissues in human beings. These substances reach the arterial blood just prior to their elimination from the body through regular systems meant for the same. The lymph has served to receive these substances from out side, from the digestive system or from the endocrine glands and to distribute the ingredients to tissues and cells all over the body. After necessary use the metabolic waste products are recovered and finally discharged in to the vena cava.

The foregoing discussion raises some fundamental issues. Harvey (1628) described the blood circulation. The medical team at that time accepted that proposal and made it a generalized statement all over the world. This became the official professional stand and scientific opinion on this subject. The world around under the European colonial supremacy had to accept this as a norm without protest. There was no second opinion at any time and in due course of time this hypothesis became a law. This is typically what happens in the case of blind belief.

After all on care full observation it is evident that there is neither such continuity in the blood flow nor there are any closed circuits through which the blood flows. The arterial blood flows in one direction from the heart to different organs and tissues for the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. The venous blood recovers the recyclable portion of the plasma, erythrocytes, platelets and other components to continue the process. Each individual is unique but the pattern may be same in all. Several partial actions reactions and interactions take place prior to the expression. The expression may be part of the whole process. Fragmentation is a major draw back in the prevailing paradigm. Every fragment is considered for description in the hope of obtaining a detailed knowledge but forget the comprehensive process as a whole.

About 71% of the human body is fluid. A small portion of this is the blood. When blood alone is considered the fragmentation picture becomes evident. The arterial blood has efficiently served the body to eliminate the metabolic waste out of the body tissues. But at the same time one has to make sure that the arterial blood is not nourishing the cells and tissues around the body. There is no need to complicate the issue by incorporating the arterial blood, Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients into one package. This changes the paradigm as a whole. The venous blood is devoid of toxins or at least there is recyclable part of the blood generally devoid of toxic wastes. The venous blood receives the metabolic waste products from the lymph at the vena cava. The story of blood circulation has to be rewritten on these lines changing the entire process.

Any unbiased observer can follow the pattern in a dynamic process. The serological blood test is yet another topic for critical discussion.

Considering the biodiversity no two persons can have immunologically identical blood. Perhaps Siamese twins are exceptions to this rule. Blood groups of mother and child are different. This indicates that at any time during pregnancy there was no communication of blood between the two bodies. The developing fetus does not eat but develops the complete digestive tract with all accessory organs related with the same. But the same is not functional until child birth. The lungs and nostrils develop in the fetus but do not enter into action until child birth. Functionally active heart is observable or becomes evident soon after the first three weeks of embryo development. Throughout the embryo development the nourishment is available to each and every cell from the surrounding amniotic fluid rich in nutrients.

A normal human being may survive for about six minutes without breathing. A sample of blood obtained from a vein is held in a test tube or a vial for its analysis or even for the blood bank. The duration may vary from minutes to days or even months before it is handled for specific purposes. There is neither gaseous exchange nor nourishment during this period. Some times it is held under refrigeration, which is not its natural condition. Probably it is a dead tissue for all practical purposes.
The simplest test is to determine the blood group among the four A, B, AB and O.

It is a common knowledge that each individual is unique in the world. Any donation of blood or transfusion, even if the group has tallied, is naturally associated with tissue rejection by the recipient. In order to suppress this rejection special chemicals will have to be injected into the recipient body. No wonder that a significant majority (about 95%) has developed hepatitis B or C as a consequence of this technology. As a result these recipients can never donate their blood.

Tissue rejection is a major problem in the transplant surgery process. This is a real challenge for the science as well. This has made it compulsory to administer ante rejection medicines along with the transplant. The side effects are quite significant. 

If blood neither nourishes the tissues and cells in the body with nutrients nor Oxygen as assumed in the modern science, it becomes evident that this paradigm has to be abandoned immediately. This is all the more urgent when the blood serves only as an efficient metabolic waste disposal system. A new paradigm is necessary to explain what happens in the living body, how and why.

At the outset the blood bank, blood “donation”, blood transfusion, blood tests, blood groups, intravenous injections and all such procedures become meaningless and obsolete.

Is it possible for the scientific community to accept such significant proposition?

Obviously a coherent logical paradigm has to be proposed and details worked out. If only some careful attention is given to the whole process with least fragmentation, clear cut pictures start appearing. Improvement of Science in general and basic sciences in particular is possible only through such bold far-reaching break through. New professional formation in this objective will have to be planned and executed.

An #ontogenetic approach should provide us with a logical sequence of events right from the beginning. Care should be taken to maintain the process as dynamic as possible since it involves life energy. #Life energy needs a definition first. All the information of living organisms is based on dead material and even the life energy is not yet defined. The liquid medium where the self sustainable energy expresses itself should be better understood. This is the assembly line for the differentiation of the cells, tissues and organs. The entire organism gets ready structurally within this medium before setting free functionally, at least partially at child birth.

#Life has to be defined as a new type of energy different from those described in the physical sciences such as #electromagnetic, #nuclear or #gravity. Life is a potential indestructible, subtle and self moving energy. This energy is present in and expresses through each and every organism whether it is unicellular or multi-cellular. The internal structural complexity associated with dynamic activities is unique for these organisms. Metabolic functions, vibrations, movements of liquids, gases or even solids express automatically with ample diversity. Each organism is different from another one either in form, size, shape or expressions. This is the basic tenet for #biodiversity. The life energy can neither be measured quantitatively nor qualitatively. Its dynamic expression may be felt as a pattern of vibrations but the existing instruments are not capable of measuring the same. The life energy is present in the whole organism in such a diffuse form that to locate its position in organs, tissues or cells becomes impossible. Sub-cellular localization should not be resorted to since this violates the fundamental decision not to fragment the whole.

The #primordial expression of life energy is in the form of vibration occurring in the liquid medium. The #zygote is the initial cell from which the entire organism evolves. At this stage structurally there is a liquid medium known as the #cytoplasm within which a nucleus may be observed. The contents of these two components proceed from the biological parents. The quality and quantity of the same is therefore entirely limited to the conditions of the parents prior to the conception. The metabolism in this single cell initiates the process and determines the future as a whole.

This new paradigm not only considers the entire organism as a whole without #fragmentation but also takes into account the time-space as a continuum for the sustainability of life. The metabolic activity creates new components both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As a consequence the mass and volume get increased. Depending on the nutrients readily available in the #mucus membrane of the #uterus, the quality and quantity of metabolic products are added to the zygote. A part of this supply of raw material is used up to provide energy for the process whereas another portion is incorporated to the mass. Perhaps a small quantity of residue, either unused raw material or metabolic product not required at that moment, is produced. Such metabolic wastes must be removed constantly from the set up to maintain a clean and tidy process in order to facilitate the life to prosper and flourish.

The zygote under normal circumstances migrates to a specific location in the uterus where it gets attached itself to the mucus membrane. Rarely however, zygotes reach abnormal locations. Soon the nucleus of the zygote expresses the process of mitosis as the manifestation of life force. Successive division of the cytoplasm results in two cells a #basal cell and an #apical cell. The basal cell gets attached to the #substrate firmly to project the apical cell out into the cavity of the uterus. Soon lateral expansion and cell divisions in the basal cell permit the formation of the embryo sac which envelops the apical cell. The liquid medium fills up the sac and is the #amniotic fluid. The apical cell divides to constitute the pro embryo at the tip of a #filamentous #stalk. The #filamentous #stalk after successive divisions becomes the #umbilical chord. The pro embryo develops at all times during the formative stages. The hormones secreted by the umbilical chord play important role in the differentiation of organs and tissues. Within this chord three blood vessels get differentiated of which two arteries and one vein. The embryo sac is filled with amniotic fluid which is the nourishing medium and an assembly line for the developing embryo. The embryo is completely submerged in the fluid maintained at a constant temperature of 37 degrees centigrade.

Embryo development as such may be understood as a process. The energy flow, especially the life energy is neither visible nor measurable with known instruments. The process of differentiation may be observed in a specific pattern. The #thoracic #cavity with included organs gets differentiated within the #neural #tube during the first three weeks. The #viscera and the #abdominal region get differentiated during the next three weeks. A #transverse muscular separation wall occurs between these two regions and later on gets identified as the #diaphragm. In another three weeks time the head region becomes differentiated at the other extreme of the thoracic region. The navel at the tip represents the initial point of the organism since it is here that the umbilical chord is connected to it. Obviously the other end of the embryo is the fontanel at the other extreme of the neural tube. The length of the human body should have been measured from the initial navel point to the #fontanel. Upper and lower #appendages along with other organs get differentiated in the body at corresponding locations.

The whole process takes place with the embryo well submerged in the #amniotic fluid which nourishes the cells, tissues and organs at all times. There is no more need for additional supply of nutrients. The #pulmonary and #digestive systems get differentiated but they start functioning only after child birth. It is interesting to note that one of the arteries in the umbilical chord gets obliterated by deposition of metabolic wastes from the developing embryo. Even the umbilical chord gets #impregnated with toxic residues at the time of the completion of the #gestation period. Soon after child birth the umbilical chord gets detached from the uterus along with the embryo sac which is made use of by the #pharmaceutical industry as raw material for hormones.

The female #breast is made up of special tissue where glands are arranged in a particular fashion. The secretion comes out through special openings at the nipple. Soon after the woman gets pregnant these glands get stimulated and soon after child birth these glands secrete milk to nourish the new born baby. The chemical constitution of this milk is ideally suited to the baby in such a way that the composition changes with each feeding. The concentration of substances increases in the milk proportionate to the aging of the infant. Breast milk is considered as a complete food for the baby.

On reflection it is easy to visualize the importance of lymphatic system in the human body. Interestingly much of the body liquid is #lymph. This liquid is in constant contact with every cell of the body including those of the brain, the bone marrow, the lungs, the liver, the endocrine glands, the gonads and practically all over the body. This liquid medium served for growth of the embryo, maintaining contact with each cell of the same. The direct communication with all the living cells permits the nourishment whenever needed on the one hand and to get rid of the metabolic waste produced during the process. In the case of endocrine glands the hormones get into the lymph and immediately they are available at every cell of the body through the lymph. The drainage of the lymph into the vena cava explains the toxic waste elimination from the body collected from every living cell. The venous blood at this stage gets mixed up with the wastes before entering the heart. From the heart the arterial blood loaded with toxic wastes proceeds to the organs of elimination. Besides nostrils the body is furnished with several inlets and outlets for the atmospheric air including several millions of pores all over the skin. Subtle vibrations from the surroundings, beyond the capacity of sense organs, can be felt by the #lymph.

The #tropical region of the world has 76% of the world population. Major health problems are also reported from the tropics. #Child #mortality, #malnutrition, #dehydration, lack of breast milk or absence of clean drinking water may be cited as few examples of real issues to solve. The modern science sees no hope for these peoples since all these problems have no known solutions at their offices or educational centers. When the new paradigm is applied correctly all these problems may be solved around the world in less than a year.

Oral re #hydration #therapies are more efficient than the #intravenous #drips. In the tropics the locally available #tender coconut (with abundant #liquid #nuclear #endosperm) is an ideal #isotonic solution for #oral administration. There is no need for professional assistance, no need for sophisticated instrumentation, the cost is so cheap and any body can afford this solution. Once administered orally the assimilation occurs within minutes into the #lymph at the #circum #esophageal #vessel and the body fluid reaches its full capacity. Within half an hour normal urine elimination occurs by separation of toxins from the system. At the same time, the body cells get nourished from the liquid and the urinary system of the patient improves its functions.

Blood transfusion is not required at any moment. The risk of hepatitis may be avoided.

If proper food and life style habits are maintained, with discipline and full freedom efficiency and creativity permit new horizons, may be reached. All other invasive treatments may be avoided. Intravenous injections also may be abandoned with oral therapy. Oral administration of medicines in the form of liquids may reduce the high cost of pharmaceutical drugs that are injected.

Just because the modern science has not discovered the importance of #lymph #nodes and #lymph #glands they cut off such organs and remove them even without knowing their importance for the body. It is possible that some part of the body has serious problems and the associated lymph node is swollen. In that case removal of the node without attending the affected organ or tissues may lead to other complications. 

#Logical reasoning is the only way by which free thinking becomes creative. New and novel ideas come to light under such circumstances. When these ideas or thoughts flourish in an intellectual with personal discipline the results become proportionately valuable. These lines of thought should yield very useful information to understand the nature as a process. When these conclusions are carried over to soft technologies

The human kind should benefit materially out of it.

This type of Science leading to adequate soft technology is one of the key issues for real progress of the humanity. The entire process is the direct result of efficient creativity or creative efficiency. Both these qualities are direct consequences of individual discipline at all levels combined with individual freedom of thought, words and action.

An education system that permits this kind of free thinking should be implemented at all levels from birth to death. All necessary facilities and opportunities should be given for such projects. Scientist, young and old should get trained in such methods. This is the only way to attain real knowledge with least bias.
-- With Salutations to great soul
These explanations are from Late Dr. Pallatadka Keshava Bhat's free thinking based discoveries, practical experimentations, treating several patients, study of flora & fauna, Ayurveda, Khagola, Vedas etc.,

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